Summary of Quran Chapter 2 Surah Al Baqarah The Cow,

Baqarah is a Madani Surah. It contains two hundred and
eighty-six verses and forty ruku’s. (Ruku meaning in English is Genuflection or
The Doublet of) 

This is the longest surah of the Holy Qur’an, its
incident is mentioned in verses 67-73. Which the Israelites were ordered to
slaughter. Therefore, the name of this Surah is Surah Baqara. Because Baqara is
called cow in Arabic. This surah begins with the statement of the basic tenets
of Islam, namely, monotheism, prophethood, and the hereafter. In this regard,
three types of human beings, namely, believers, infidels, and hypocrites have
been described. 

Then the story of the creation of Adam (peace be upon him) is
narrated, so that man may know the purpose of his creation. A long series of
verses after this is mainly addressed to the Jews who lived in large numbers
around Medina. There is a detailed description of the blessings which Allah
Almighty bestowed on them, and how they acted in ingratitude and disobedience. 

It mentions Abraham (peace be upon him) because not only Jews and Christians
but also Arab pagans considered him as their leader. All of them have been
reminded that they believed in pure monotheism and did not accept any form of
polytheism. In this context, the topic of building Baitullah and making it
Qibla (direction) has been discussed. This surah contains many rules concerning
the individual and collective life of Muslims, including many issues ranging
from worship to society, family affairs, and governance. 

Surah Al-Baqarah and Surah Al-Imraan are two of these
Surahs which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) named Al-Zahrawain.
It means that is, they are two very bright and enlightening Surahs (Quranic

This surah contains articles on Islamic law. It addresses
the People of the Book. 
The importance and virtue of Surah Al-Baqarah can be gauged from the fact that
the Messenger of Allah has declared it to be the peak of the Qur’an. 

Hadith narrated by Hazrat Maqil bin Yasar: 

The Messenger of Allah Almighty, (PBUH), said Surat
Al-Baqarah (The Cow, Quran Chapter:2) the hump and peak of the Qur’an. (The
Musnad of Imam Ahmad – Hazrat Ma’qal bin Yasar (may Allah be pleased with him)
as narrated.- Hadith No. 19419). 

Hadith narrated Abu Mas’ud Al-Badri: 

Allah’s Messenger Mohammad (PBUH) said, ” Whosoever recited the last two verses of Al-Baqarah (The Cow) at night, that wii be sufficient for him. ” (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol.5, Hadith NO:345)

Surah Al-Baqarah can be divided into two parts and in
this regard, Dr. Israr Ahmad, the late religious scholar, has suggested a name
for it, namely, Surah Al-Umatin, the Surah of two nations. In the first half,
the original address is to the former Jewish nation, who at that time were the
representatives of God and the same Muslim Ummah on earth. 

But due to their
misdeeds, they proved themselves incompetent in this position, so they were
deposed and a new nation of Muhammad’s Ummah was appointed to this position. In
the first half, there is a conversation with the former ummah and it is as if
they have been accused of doing this. We have bestowed upon you innumerable
favors and kindnesses. 

Our blessings are upon you. But this is your behavior,
because of which you are being ousted. This article is from the first half of
the former Jewish nation. Now the second ummah has been established, that is,
the ummah of Muhammad. It is addressed within the second half. 

These quotations are taken from the books of various religious scholars.