Summary of Quran Chapter 4 Surah An-Nisa The Women

This Surah was revealed in the early years after the
Prophet migrated to Madinah, and most of it was revealed after the Battle of
Badr. This was the time when the nascent Muslim state of Madinah was facing
various problems. A new structure of life was emerging, for which Muslims
needed detailed instructions on their methods of worship morals and society.

Enemy forces were making strenuous efforts to block the
advance of Islam, and Muslims were facing new challenges in protecting their
geographical and ideological boundaries. Surah An-Nisa ‘has given detailed
instructions in all these matters. Since a strong family structure is the
foundation of any society, this surah begins with detailed rulings on family

Since women have a very important role in the family
system, this Surah has given detailed rules about women, and that is why it is
called Surah Nisa. After the battle of Uhud, many women became widows and many
children became orphans, so the surah has made arrangements for the protection of
the rights of orphans from the very beginning, and the rules of inheritance are
explained in detail up to verse 14.

In the pre-Islamic era, women were subjected to all sorts
of atrocities, these atrocities have been pointed out one by one, and
instructions have been given to eradicate them from society. Detailed rules of
marriage and divorce have been stated, and the rights of spouses have been
defined. This article goes back to verse 35, after which attention is drawn to
the inner and social reform of man.

Muslims used to face water shortage while traveling in
the deserts of Arabia, so in verse 43 the method of tayammum and in verse 101
the facility to shorten the prayer while traveling has been given. Also, the
method of fear prayer during jihad is explained in verses 102 and 103.

The Jews living in Madinah had started an endless series
of conspiracies against the Muslims despite their agreement with the Holy
Prophet. In verses 44 to 57 and 153 to 175, their evil deeds are made clear,
and they are encouraged to follow the right path. In verses 171 to 175,
Christians are included in the sermon with them, and they are invited to adopt
pure monotheism instead of the doctrine of Trinity.

In addition, verses 57 and 59 contain instructions
regarding politics and governance. The misdeeds of the hypocrites are explained
in verses 60 to 70 and then in verses 137 to 152. Verses 71-96 expose the
hypocrisy of the hypocrites by stating the rules of jihad. In the same context,
in verses 92 and 93, the death penalty is prescribed. The Muslims who were left
in Makkah were suffering at the hands of infidels.

The issues of their migration are discussed in verses 97
to 100. During this time many disputes were brought before the Holy Prophet for
decision. In verses 105 to 115, you are told the method of their decision, and
the Muslims are urged to accept your decision wholeheartedly. In verses, 116 to
126, the importance of monotheism is made clear.

The Companions asked the Prophet (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) many questions about the family system and inheritance.
Verses 127 to 129 and then 172 answers these questions. In short, the whole
surah is full of rules and teachings, and in the beginning taqwa (Fear of
God Almighty-God fearing persons) was commanded, it can be said that the whole surah
explains it in detail.

The issue of sex is also very important in society. If
there are no restrictions on sexual matters in a society and it becomes a
victim of sexual misconduct, then there will be destruction. The first
commandments in this regard are given in this surah on how to establish sex
discipline in an Islamic society and how to deal with sexual misconduct. So in
this way, the basic goal of civilization is being discussed.

One of the forms of speech at the beginning of Surah
An-Nisa ‘is that (O people) ie speech is common, and Surah Al-Maidah begins
with the phrase O believers. That is, the address there is specifically for
those who claim to be believers.

The chapters of the Qur’an are quite long. This is their summary. These
quotations are taken from the books of various religious scholars.