Summary of Quran
Chapter 30 The Romans Surah Ar-Rum 

surah has a special historical background, which provides undeniable proof of
the truth and authenticity of Muhammad and the Holy Qur’an. At the time
Prophethood was granted to Muhammad, (peace be upon him). There were two great
powers in the world at that time, one was the empire of Iran, which spread over
the eastern region, and each of its kings was called a “Kisra.” These
people were fire-worshippers, that is, they worshiped fire. 

The other great
power was Rome, which extended to the north and west of Mecca. Syria, Egypt,
Asia Minor, and parts of Europe were under this empire, and each of its kings
was called “Qaiser” and the majority of them were Christians. At the
time when this Surah was revealed, there was a fierce war between the two
powers, in that war, Iran’s side was heavy in every respect, and its armies
defeated the Roman armies on every front. 

quran chapter 30 ar-rum the roman

They had conquered major cities by
defeating them until they destroyed the holiest church of the Christians in
Jerusalem, the Romans were constantly pushed back, and the King of Rome,
Heracles, was finding it difficult to find shelter. Since the government of
Iran was an arsonist, the sympathies of the idolaters of Makkah were with it,
and whenever news of any victory of Iran came, the idolaters of Makkah would
not only rejoice over it but would also scold the Muslims. 

The Christian people
who believe in the divine book are constantly being defeated, and the people of
Iran, who do not believe in any prophet or divine book like us, are equally
victorious. On this occasion, this Surah was revealed, and at the very
beginning it was predicted that although the people of Rome were defeated at
that time, the people of Rome have been defeated at this time though. However,
in a few years, they will conquer the Iranians. 

In addition, on that day the
Muslims will be happy with the help of Allah. Thus, two predictions were made
simultaneously at the beginning of this Surah. One is that the people of Rome,
who have been defeated, will overcome the Iranians in a few years, and the
other is that the polytheists of Makkah are persecuting the Muslims at that
time. On that day, they will also celebrate the victory over the polytheists.
Both these prophecies were so far-fetched in the atmosphere of that time that
no one aware of the conditions of that time could have made such a prediction.
As the Muslims were oppressed and crushed by the persecution of the infidels at
that time, there was no possibility of them celebrating their victory. 

On the
other hand, the situation of the Roman Empire was such that its rise in
comparison to the Iranians could not be remotely estimated. Thus, Edward Comin,
the famous historian of the Roman Empire, while commenting on this prophecy,
writes: “At the time when this prophecy was allegedly made, the
fulfillment of any prophecy could not have been more remote, because Qaiser
“During the first twelve years of Heraclius’ reign, it became clear that
the end of the Roman Empire was at hand.”
(Gibbon: The Decline and
Fall of the Roman Empire, chapter 46, Volume 2, p.125, Great Books, v.38,
University of Chicago, 1990).

So the polytheists of Makkah made a lot of fun
of this prophecy, until one of their famous leaders, Abi bin Khalaf, made a bet
with Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) that if the people of Rome prevailed over the
Iranians in the next nine years. So he will give Hazrat Abu Bakr a hundred
camels, and if he does not prevail in that period, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq will
give him a hundred camels. (Until then this type of bilateral betting was not

So even after the revelation of this verse, the conquests of the
Iranians continued, until they reached the walls of Constantinople, at the foot
of Caesar’s throne, and they responded by rejecting every offer of peace made
by Caesar Heraclius. That they would accept no other offer than the head of
Hercules, which resulted in Hercules planning to flee to Tunis. But soon after
the situation took a strange turn, Hercules was forced to attack the Iranians
from the rear, in which he achieved a success that turned the tide of the

It was only seven years after this prophecy that the news of the Roman
victory reached Arabia. At the time when this news arrived, it was precisely at
the time when Muhammad, PBUH, had inflicted a crushing defeat on the army of
the Quraysh of Makkah at the Battle of Badr, and the Muslims experienced
extraordinary joy at this victory. 

In this way, both the prophecies of the Holy
Quran were fulfilled with open eyes in such a way that the circumstances did
not seem to be possible, and this made the truth of Prophet Muhammad (peace and
blessings of Allah be upon him) the Holy Quran clear as day. At that time, Ubi
bin Khalaf, who had made a bet with Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA), died, but his sons
paid one hundred camels to Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) according to the bet, and since
gambling was prohibited at that time, and a bilateral bet is a form of
gambling, so Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) ordered Siddiq Akbar (RA) to donate the
camel instead of using it himself. In addition to this prediction, in this
surah, the basic beliefs of Islam, monotheism, Prophethood, and the hereafter
have been proven with various arguments, and the opponents have been refuted.