Summary of Quran Chapter 5 Surah Al-Maidah The Table 

This Surah was revealed in the very last period of the
life of the Holy Prophet (sws). Allama Abu Hayyan says that some parts of it
were revealed on the occasion of the peace treaty of Hudaybiyyah, some time in
Makkah, and some on the occasion of Hujjat al-Wida. At that time the call to
Islam had spread well across the Arabian Peninsula, the enemies of Islam had
been largely defeated, and the Islamic state established by the Prophet (peace
be upon him) had been established in Medina. 

Therefore, in this Surah, many instructions have been
given regarding the social, political, and economic issues of Muslims. The
surah begins with the basic command that Muslims should fulfill their vows. In
this basic knowledge, all the rules of Shari’ah have been summarized, whether
it is related to the rights of Allah Almighty or the rights of the slaves. In
this regard, the principle has been strongly emphasized that even with enemies,
every matter should be done with justice. 

The good news is that the enemies of Islam are now
frustrated with stopping the advance of Islam and Allah has perfected his
religion. This surah also states that certain types of foods are halal and some
types are haraam. Hunting activities are also described in detail in this
regard. The rulings of the marriage of the People of the Book and their women
have been mentioned. The Shari’ah (Islamic laws) punishments for theft and
robbery have been prescribed. 

Explaining this, the story of Adam’s two sons Abel and
Cain (Habeel and Qabeel) has been mentioned, alcohol and gambling have been explicitly declared
haraam, and the method of ablution and tayammum
In Arabic, the word Tayammum means an ‘aim’ or
‘purpose.’ In Islamic Law, it refers to: ‘Aiming for or seeking soil to wipe
one’s face and hands with the intention of purification and preparing oneself
to pray, and so on.”
has been explained. How the Jews and Christians broke
their covenant with Allah Almighty (God) is described in detail. 

In Arabic, it is called Maidah (means The Table). In
verse 114 of this surah, it is narrated that Jesus (PBUH) was asked by his
followers to pray that Allah may send down to them ‘a Table with heavenly food’.
Due to this reason, this surah has been named Maidah, meaning The Table.