Summary of Quran Chapter 33, The Confederates Surah

This surah was revealed between the fourth and fifth year
after Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) migrated to Medina. In its background, four
events are of special importance, which are mentioned in this surah. Following
is a brief introduction to these four events. The details will come later in
the interpretation of the relevant verses. 

surah ahzab the confederates 33

1: The first event is the Battle of Ahzab, after which
this surah is named. After the failures of Badr and Uhud, the people of Quraysh
incited the other tribes of Arabia against Prophet Muhammad and formed a united
front of them to attack Medina. On the advice of Hazrat Salman Farsi, Prophet
Muhammad (PBUH) dug a trench around the city to defend Medina so that the enemy
could not cross it and reach the city. That is why this battle is also called the
“Battle of the Trench”. The important events of this battle are
described in this Surah, and the severe ordeal that the Muslims had to go
through on this occasion has also been described in detail. 

2: The second important event is the Battle of Quraiza.
Qurayzah was a tribe of Jews who lived in the suburbs of Madinah. Prophet
Muhammad (PBUH) made a peace treaty with them after the migration, part of
which was that Muslims and Jews would not help each other’s enemies. However,
the Jews of Quraiza, in addition to other violations of the agreement, wanted
to stab the Muslims from behind by making a secret plan at the critical moment
of the war. Therefore, after the war of the parties, Allah Almighty ordered
that you immediately attack the clan of Qurayzah and destroy these hidden enemies.
Therefore, Prophet Muhammad besieged them, because of which many of their people
were killed, and many were arrested. Some details of this incident have also
come in this surah. 

3: The third important event was that when the Arabs made
someone their adopted son, they used to give him the status of their adopted
son in every case. He even got an inheritance. Moreover, it was not considered
permissible for his father to marry his widow or divorced wife. Rather, it was
considered the worst evil act. Although there was no prohibition from Allah. 

These ignorant practices of the Arabs were so deeply
entrenched in the hearts that they could not be eradicated by mere verbal
advice. Therefore, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) acted
against these rituals, first of all, to put an end to such customs. So that it
becomes clear that if there were even the slightest flaw in this practice, then
the Prophet (peace be upon him) would not have followed it at all. There are
many examples of this in the biography of the Prophet. Allah also ordered
Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to correct the
custom regarding the adopted son (child). That the Prophet (peace and blessings of
Allah be upon him) should marry Zainab bint Jahsh, the divorced wife of his son
Zayd ibn Ḥaritha. 

It should be noted that Hazrat Zainab was the daughter of
the paternal aunt of Hazrat Muhammad, and Zainab was married to Hazrat Zayd by
Muhammad himself, so even though it was a patient act for him to marry her now.
However, he bowed down to Allah’s order and religious expediency and married
Zainab. At the celebration of this marriage (the wedding party thrown by the groom’s
family), the verses containing the rules of hijab (veil) were revealed, which
are part of this surah. 

4: The fourth incident is that the holy wives of the
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) supported the Prophet (peace
and blessings of Allah be upon him) in all kinds of difficult situations, but
when he had financial expansion as a result of various conquests, they demanded
an increase in his allowance. This demand was not unreasonable to demand in any
way under normal circumstances, but the high status of these holy women who had
the honor of being the wife of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah
be upon him) was above such demands. 

Therefore, in this surah, Allah Almighty has given the
power to the pure spouses (Holy Wives of the Holy Prophet) that if they want
the adornment of the world, then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be
upon him) is ready to separate them with honor and dignity. And if they are
companions in the mission of the Prophet Muhammad, and seek the rewards of the
Hereafter, then such demands do not adorn them. 

Because the infidels and hypocrites raised objections
against him on the incident of marriage with Zainab. That is why the position
of Muhammad (peace be upon him) is mentioned in the same surah. Moreover, this
has been made clear by commanding your respect and obedience. That these
objections of the ignorant on a great personality like you cannot detract from
your high position. 

from this, your behavior with Holy Wives and certain details related to it are
also described in this Surah.