Summary of Quran Chapter 44, Surat Ad-Dukhan, The Smoke 

According to authentic narratives, this surah was
revealed at a time when Allah Almighty afflicted the disbelievers of Makkah
with a severe drought as a warning to them. During this period, people were
compelled to eat animal hides due to extreme famine (At that time, people were
compelled to eat animal hides, meaning they were forced to consume the flesh of
animals, possibly because of the extreme scarcity of food during the severe
drought.). The disbelievers, through Abu Sufyan, approached Prophet Muhammad
(peace be upon him) and requested him to pray to Allah to remove the drought.
They promised that if the drought ended, they would embrace Islam. 

quran chapter 44 ad-dukhan

In response to their request, Prophet Muhammad (peace be
upon him) prayed, and Allah granted relief from the drought. However, when the
drought ended, the disbelievers broke their promise and did not accept Islam.
This incident is mentioned in verses 10 to 15 of this surah. 

In the
same context, it is mentioned that one day, there will be a great smoke or mist
in the sky. In Arabic, this Smoke is referred to as “Dukhan,” which
is why this surah is named “Surah Ad-Dukhan.” The remaining contents
of the surah revolve around the topics of Monotheism, Prophethood, and the Hereafter.