Summary of Quran Chapter 55, Surah Ar-Rahman, The Most

Summary by Late: Dr, Israr Ahmed (A renowned Islamic

Before this, in Surah Qaf, it has been mentioned in the
introductory words that, among the seven Makki Surahs under study, Surah Qaf is
unique, while the rest of the six Surahs are in pairs. The first pair is Surah
Adh-Dhariyat and Surah At-Tur, the second pair is Surah An-Najm and Surah
Al-Qamar, and the third pair is Surah Ar-Rahman and Surah Al-Waqi’ah. 

Therefore, we are now going to study the third pair. Both of these Surahs
(Surah Ar-Rahman and Surah Al-Waqi’ah) are unique in the sense that they do not
contain explicit mention of Prophethood, Messengership, or Revelation, unlike
the rest of the Quran. Furthermore, Surah Ar-Rahman is the only Surah in the
entire Quran in which there is a continuous and parallel address to both jinn and

surat ar-rahman_the_most_gracious

In this regard, it’s important to understand that there
is no concept of Prophethood and Revelation among the jinn. The fundamental
reason for this is that only the human spirit can bear the descent of divine
revelation in the world, and Allah has granted the spirit exclusively to
humans. Jinn does not possess the spirit. 

Therefore, the jinn are followers of the prophets and
messengers who are continually sent to humans. In this sense, there are
believers and non-believers among them as well. In Surah Al-Ahqaf, we read
about a group of jinn who believed in Moses and the Torah. They heard the Quran
from the Prophet Muhammad and embraced faith. They then conveyed the message of
faith and the Quran to their people. 

They (Muhammad, peace be upon him) embraced faith and believed upon hearing the Quran and then called their people to faith and
the Quran. In any case, Surah Ar-Rahman is unique in the Quran in this regard
because it repeatedly addresses both jinn and humans, emphasizing that they are
the recipients of the divine message. Specifically, the phrase “
بٰمَعْشَرَ الْجِنِ والِانس
(with the assembly of jinn and mankind) is used to address them. 

This Surah clearly indicates that Allah’s addressees are
individuals from both of these species. Thus, when the Quran uses phrases like
“O mankind,” it implies that it is addressing both humans and jinn.
In this way, every such address includes both humans and the jinn, even though
it is primarily directed at humans. 

One characteristic of Surah Ar-Rahman is that it mentions
two paradises and a similar feature is found in Surah Al-Waqi’ah. The
arrangement of the content in these two Surahs is unique and intriguing. This
arrangement can be termed as a ‘mirror image’ order. In other words, the
content of one Surah is presented in the reverse order of the other Surah. 

In recent times, some people have constructed twin houses in
such a way that the architectural floor plans are identical, but the
arrangement of rooms and other features is reversed in one of the houses. This
creates a “mirror image” effect, where one house appears as a
reflection of the other. 

In Surah Ar-Rahman, the recurring verse ‘فَبَایِّ الَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِ بْنِ
appears 31 times, [Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (Jinn
and Men) deny?] while the total number of verses in this Surah is 78. Although
the style of repeated verses has been seen in Surah Ash-Shu’ara and Surah
Al-Qamar before, in Surah Ash-Shu’ara, these two verses are repeated eight
times: ‘
إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآيَةٌ
وَمَا كَانَ أَكْثَرُهُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ
‘ [Verily,
in this is an Ayah (proof or sign) yet most of them (polytheists, pagans who do
not believe in Resurrection) are not believers-And verily, your Lord, He is
true the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.].’ 

In Surah Al-Qamar, these two verses are repeated four
times: ‘
فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِي
وَنُذُرِ وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ
‘ [Then, how (terrible) was My
Torment and My Warnings?-And We have indeed made the Qur’an easy to understand
and remember, then is there any who will remember (or receive admonition?)]. 

In any case, this particular style is very prominent in
Surah Ar-Rahman. 

Summary by Islamic scholar (Mufti Taqi Usmani): 

This surah is the only one that addresses both humans and
jinn simultaneously with clarity. It reminds both of the countless blessings of
Allah that are spread throughout the universe and repeatedly asks, “Then
which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (Jinn and Men) deny?” 

Due to
its unique style and eloquence, the impact of this surah cannot be fully
conveyed in any other language. There are different opinions about whether this
surah is Makki or Madni. Generally, it is categorized as a Madini surah in the
copies of the Quran, but based on various narrations, Al-Qurtubi has argued
that it is a Makki surah. (Allah knows best).