Summary of Quran Chapter 48, Surah Al-Fath, The Victory 

This is Surah Al-Fath (the Surah of Victory), which was
revealed on the occasion of Hudaybiyyah. The brief account of this event is as
follows: In the sixth year after the Hijrah (the migration of Prophet Muhammad,
peace be upon him, from Mecca to Medina), the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon
him) expressed his intention to perform Umrah (a lesser pilgrimage to Mecca)
along with his companions. 

surah al-fath

He had a dream in which he saw himself and his
companions entering the Masjid al-Haram (the Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. Acting
upon this dream, he, along with approximately 1,400 of his companions, set out
for Mecca. Upon approaching Mecca, they discovered that the Quraysh (the tribe
that controlled Mecca and opposed the Muslims) had assembled a large army with
the intention of preventing them from entering Mecca. 

Upon receiving this news, you halted your advance and
decided to establish a camp at a location near Hudaybiyyah, which is known as
Shumaisi today. From there, you appointed Hazrat Uthman (may Allah be pleased
with him) as your envoy and sent him to Mecca. His mission was to convey to the
leaders of Mecca that Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) had no intention of
engaging in any hostile conflict; he and his companions only wished to perform
the Umrah peacefully and return to a state of security. Hazrat Uthman (may
Allah be pleased with him) went to Mecca, and after his departure, rumors
spread that he had been killed by the Quraysh. 

At that moment, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)
gathered his companions and took their pledge, which is known as ‘Bay’at
al-Ridwan’ (the Pledge of Ridwan). In this pledge, they solemnly committed that
if the Quraysh engaged in any hostilities against the Muslims, they would offer
their lives in defense. 

Afterward, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) through a
representative of the Khuzayah tribe, extended an offer to the leaders of the
Quraysh by saying that if they were willing to make a peace treaty for a
certain period, he was prepared for it. In response, several envoys from Mecca
arrived, and eventually, a treaty was written. According to the narration of
Muhammad ibn Ishaq, it was agreed in this treaty that Muhammad (peace be upon
him) and the Quraysh would not engage in any warfare against each other for the
next ten years. This treaty is commonly known as the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. 

At that moment, the Companions were in a state of great
sorrow and anger due to the behavior of the disbelievers. The condition set by
the disbelievers for the peace treaty was that at this time, the Muslims should
return to Madinah, and the following year, they could come back for Umrah. All
the Companions had put on their pilgrim’s attire, and due to the opposition of
the disbelievers, opening the pilgrim’s attire seemed very burdensome to them. 

Furthermore, the disbelievers also imposed a condition that if a person from
Makkah accepted Islam and came to Madinah, it would be obligatory for the
Muslims to send them back to Makkah. However, if someone from Madinah left for
Makkah, it would not be the responsibility of the Quraysh to send them back.
This condition was very distressing for the Muslims, and they wanted to resolve
these terms with the disbelievers rather than accept them. 

However, Allah Almighty had decreed that as a result of
this peace treaty, eventually, the authority of the Quraysh would come to an
end. Therefore, by the command of Allah, Muhammad (peace be upon him) accepted
these conditions. 

The Companions were fervently committed to jihad at that
time, and they had pledged allegiance even unto death. However, they submitted
to the command of Muhammad (peace be upon him), and in agreement with the peace
terms, they returned to Madinah and performed Umrah the following year. 

This treaty, known as the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, was
drafted and agreed upon. According to the terms of the treaty: 

1: There would be a ten-year truce between the Muslims
and the Quraysh, during which no hostilities or warfare would take place. 

2: Muslims would return to Medina that year without
performing Umrah but could come back the following year for Umrah. 

3: If any person from Mecca converted to Islam and went
to Medina, they would not be returned to the Quraysh. However, any Muslim who
went from Medina to Mecca without permission would be returned to the Muslims. 

After some time, an incident occurred when a man named
Abu Basir (may Allah be pleased with him), who had embraced Islam, came to
Madinah. According to the terms of the treaty, Muhammad (peace be upon him) had
to send him back to Makkah. However, Abu Basir, instead of going to Makkah,
took refuge in a nearby place and initiated guerrilla warfare against the
Quraysh because they were not bound by the terms of the Hudaybiyyah treaty. 

In the aftermath of this guerrilla warfare, the Quraysh
became so distressed that they themselves requested Muhammad (peace be upon
him) to annul the treaty terms under which the Muslims were required to return
any Muslim who came from Makkah to Madinah. Quraysh proposed that any Muslim
who came should now be kept in Madinah, and they also requested the return of
Abu Basir and his companions. Consequently, Muhammad (peace be upon him) sent
for them and took them back to Madinah. 

Another incident occurred when the Quraysh violated the
terms of the Hudaybiyyah treaty within two years. Muhammad (peace be upon him)
sent them a message, stating that they should either compensate for the
violation or terminate the treaty. However, out of arrogance, the Quraysh
disregarded this message, which led Muhammad (peace be upon him) to declare that
the treaty was now null and void. 

Afterward, in the eighth year after the Hijrah, you led
around ten thousand noble companions towards Makkah for the lesser pilgrimage.
By that time, the arrogance of the Quraysh had been shattered, and Muhammad
(peace be upon him) entered Makkah as a conqueror without any bloodshed. The
people of Quraysh entrusted the city to him. 

Although the terms of the treaty may have seemed
unfavorable to the Muslims, it ultimately resulted in significant benefits. The
peace allowed Islam to spread peacefully, and many people embraced the faith
during this period. Moreover, the treaty paved the way for the eventual
conquest of Mecca, as the Quraysh violated the treaty, leading to its
dissolution by the Muslims. This peaceful takeover of Mecca by the Muslims
occurred without bloodshed. 

The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah is a significant event in
Islamic history due to its long-term implications and its role in establishing
peace and unity among the Muslim community. 

Al-Fath (The Victory) in the Quran refers to various events related to the
Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, praising the companions for their courage, dedication,
and obedience displayed at every stage of this event. On the other hand, the
evil deeds of the hypocrites and their unfortunate consequences are also