The spirit comes from the world of spirits or the spiritual realm. It comes from the closeness of Allah. It reminds one of the closeness of Allah; memories of gatherings come to mind; it wants to return to its own gatherings. In other words, the mention of Allah elevates the spirit, and it feels content with the remembrance of Allah. It becomes strengthened. On the other hand, the human “Soul or Self Or Conscience” is that inclination that inclines a person towards negativity. 

inner self Ego Nafs Conscience

Although the human “Soul or Self Or Conscience” is a non-material inclination that is not visible, it is assisted by the human body and Satan.  All the comforts and vanities present in the world greatly appeal to the human “Soul or Self Or Conscience” The human “Soul or Self Or Conscience” can transform its qualities and states under the influence of the individual’s environment and actions. 

In the Holy Qur’an, the word “self” is used in three different meanings. 

(The inciting self): The “Soul or Self Or Conscience” that incites and incites evil. This saying of Hazrat Yusuf (peace be upon him) has been quoted in the Holy Quran: 

In the Noble Quran, this concept is mentioned in the story of Prophet Joseph (peace be upon him), where he says, 

“And I free not myself (from the blame). Verily, the (human) self is inclined to evil, except when my Lord bestows His Mercy (upon whom He wills). Verily, my Lord is Off-Forgiving, Most Merciful. Qur’an Chapter, Prophet Joseph, (12:53)”  

This is the aspect of the self that drives human emotions toward various desires, leading individuals toward wrongful actions. Therefore, (The inciting self) is the sea of human emotions, which through different desires, incites a person towards various wrong actions. 

(Conscience, The self-accusing): That is the self that blames wrongdoings. It is in the Holy Qur’an: The Quran mentions: “And I swear by the self-reproaching person (a believer). Qur’an Chapter, The Resurrection (75:2).”  

That is, the self that blames itself, criticizes itself, and often criticizes the self, is so dear to Allah (God) that Allah swears by it. (Conscience, The self-accusing) tries to control 
(The inciting self). 

It is also called a Conscience or Higher Self in the English language. 

Satisfied soul: That is, the soul that has been blessed with satisfaction. It is in the verse of the Holy Quran. 

(It will be said to the pious — believers of Islamic Monotheism): “O (you) the one in (complete) rest and satisfaction! (89:27). 

“Come back to your Lord — well-pleased (yourself) and well-pleasing (to Him). (89:28). 

“Enter you then among My (honored). (89:29). 

“And enter you My Paradise. Qur’an Chapter: The Break of Day or The Dawn, (89:30). 

The self-satisfied self is the stage in which self-control has been achieved, i.e. self-control has control over self-control. When a person’s conscience is so awakened and strong that it takes control of the conscience that arouses evil, then the agitation of the (Inciting self) ends, it is no longer rebellious, but its rebelliousness turns into obedience. Moreover, when the disobedience of the (Inciting self) turns into obedience and the agitation ends, then it is blessed with satisfaction, it is called the self-satisfied self. 

Therefore, the main function of religion is to bring this first self under control. A very important thing should be kept in mind here and that is that in Islam it is not permissible to destroy the self or to eliminate its desires permanently, but to control the power of the self or one desire in this way. That he should engage in positive work instead of negative work. In the terminology of Mysticism, this is referred to as not the redemption of the self, but rather the refinement of one’s deeds. 

An example of this is that if anger is for an improper purpose, then it is forbidden. However, this same anger, if it is directed towards the love of Allah and His messenger, is called religious zeal and fervor. The first type of anger is unjustified, while the second type of anger is not only justified but also highly necessary. Changing the quality of this segment and applying it to another quality is referred to as ‘refining of deeds’, which means that the same passionate emotion that was previously used for a negative purpose is now being used for a positive purpose. This is exactly like how animals are trained; their animalistic instincts are related to the “The self’s inclinations conscience are connected to animalistic instincts. 

The process of training them is self-discipline or self-control. In the practices of Islam, this practice is done in a great-organized manner. For example, in the practice of fasting, the self is disciplined by keeping it hungry and thirsty through various restrictions. Similarly, in prayers, pilgrimage, and charity (zakat), teachings of self-discipline or self-control are imparted through various methods. The inner essence of the declaration of faith (Kalimah) is exercised to ensure that the heart and mind firmly adhere to the monotheism of Allah and the following of His messengers. 

The self, as I mentioned earlier, is a flood of energy. If we place dams over this flood, it will be just like how dams are constructed over the flood of water, which is then used for various purposes. Electricity is generated, fields are irrigated, and homes are supplied with water – but if God forbid, these dams break, there will be destruction and devastation everywhere. 

In the same way, the human self is a flood of energy. If controlled, it leads to the emergence of extraordinary creative energies. This poetry, this art, these creations, these mystic experiences, and these concepts – all of these are the results of these energies. If this energy is brought under control and directed towards the obedience of Allah and His messenger, it holds such immense power that it can elevate the human personality to the highest levels. 

The essence of human character is its fundamental source and core energy. Guiding it and bringing it into obedience to Allah and His Messenger is the true purpose of religion. The intention is not to weaken it, but rather to strengthen it and enable its mastery – this is the fundamental purpose of the divine law. 

In a Hadith (saying) of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), He mentioned the two vulnerable parts of the body that are most prone to the incitements of the (Inciting self): the space between the two lips and the space between the two thighs. This signifies the power of the tongue and sexual desires as sources of negative influences from the (Inciting self). 

Narrated Sahl bin Sa`d 

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, “Whosoever guarantees for me that he will guard what is between his lips and what is between his legs, I will guarantee him Paradise.” 

Reference: Sahih al-Bukhari 6474 
In-book reference: Book 81, Hadith 63 
(English) reference: Vol. 8, Book 76, and Hadith 481. 

It is known that the most dangerous part of the human body is the tongue. Therefore, the most dangerous temptations of the (Inciting self) come from the tongue. Therefore, Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) provided guidance and said: 

Hadith: ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr narrated that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: 

“Whoever is silent, he is saved.” 

Reference: Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2501 
In-book reference: Book 37, Hadith 87 
English translation: Vol. 4, Book 11, and Hadith 2501. 

“In the Holy Quran, it is mentioned about the second aspect of the commanding self that…” 

And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts from illegal sexual acts). Qur’an Chapter: The Ways of Ascent (70:29). 

“The aspect of human personality that represents the actions of the (The inciting self) and bringing them under control is called self-control. It is mentioned in the Holy Quran.”
But as for him who feared standing before his Lord, and restrained himself from impure evil desires and lusts. (Qur’an Chapter: Those Who Pull Out: 79:40). 

“Here, an important point becomes evident from this verse that in order to attain self-discipline, it is necessary to repeatedly remind oneself that one will have to stand before Allah Almighty; there must be a presence there.” 

It is said in the Qur’an Chapter: The Beneficent 

“But for him who fears the standing before his Lord, there will be two Gardens, (i.e. in Paradise). Qur’an Chapter: The Beneficent (55:46)”. 

The method of achieving self-discipline is to cultivate the idea of the Hereafter and the concept of standing in front of God in the Hereafter. When the concept of presence before God in the hereafter is brought to mind, the inciting self comes under control. The reproachful self gains strength, and ultimately, it transforms into the contented self, which becomes deserving of meeting Allah Almighty. 

Islam is a complete system and code of life and natural religion. The illuminating and clear teachings of Islam are preserved among Muslims in the form of the magnificent book of Allah, the Quran, and the authentic sayings of the noble Prophet, (PBUH). With these two eyes, Muslims will journey from this world to the Hereafter, quenching their thirst for knowledge. 

Islam has also provided solutions to various issues, offering a comprehensive system to establish peace, security, justice, and fairness in the world. Under this system, first and foremost comes the personal reform of each individual, followed by the improvement of his or her immediate surroundings, including family, friends, and loved ones. When the reformation of society is achieved in this manner, it is as though the reform of all societies has been accomplished.